Academic Sources on "4 Jewel" Refuge

A forum for those wishing to discuss Buddhist history and teachings in the Western academic manner, referencing appropriate sources.

Academic Sources on "4 Jewel" Refuge

Postby LynyrdSkynyrd » Sat Aug 10, 2013 6:02 pm

In many tantric traditions, in addition to taking refuge in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, one also takes refuge in the "Guru" or teacher (the 4th gem). Does anyone know of any academic sources that discuss this?

Thanks so much!
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