A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

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A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Leo Rivers » Wed Mar 27, 2013 5:03 am

A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA CONCORDANCE

Assembled by Leo Rivers

I am not a scholar. I speak none of the relevant languages. I am just some guy with an internet connection. So if you have corrections or additions I would be truly grateful.


Fore-notes on the translators:

Lokakṣema, born in Gandhāra, worked in China between 178 and 189 CE, and translated the

⁃ Pratyutpanna Sutra (also Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra, (P.), lit. "The Samadhi of being in the presence of all the Buddhas" the first known mentions of the Buddha Amitabha and his Pure Land, translated between 178 and 189 CE, at the Han capital of Loyang
⁃ and the first known translations of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, (PPM 8000.), or "Perfection of Wisdom in 8000 lines")

along with

⁃ Larger Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra———— Rk No. 5, T. 18
⁃ Akṣobhyatathāgatasyavyūha Sūtra—Rk No. 6, T. 17
⁃ Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra——————————— Rk No. 19, U.
⁃ Mañjuśrīparipṛcchā Sūtra
⁃ Drumakinnararājaparipṛcchā Sūtra
⁃ Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra
⁃ Bhadrapāla Sūtra
⁃ Ajātaśatrukaukṛtyavinodana Sūtra
⁃ Kāśyapaparivarta Sūtra————————— Rk No. 43, T. 20
⁃ Lokānuvartana Sūtra
⁃ An early sūtra connected to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra


P. = Research, and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation. The Pratyupanna Samadhi Sutra & The Surangama Samadhi Sutra. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation & Rese, 1998.
PPM 8000. = Conze, Edward, ed. The Perfection of Wisdom. Grey Fox Press, 2001.
Rk No. # = Ratnakuta Sūtra
T. = Chang, Garma C. C., ed. A Treasury of Mahayana Sutras: Selections from the Maharatnakuta Sutra. annotated edition. Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.
U. = Nattier, Jan. Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path According to the Inquiry of Ugra (Ugrapariprccha). New edition. Univ of Hawaii Pr, 2005.


Xuanzang (600-664 CE) translated the Bodhisattva piṭaka Sūtra. And it is in this report for the first time we meet a translator that for which a fore-runner of a Ratnakūṭa collection existed - in some form. Prior to this time, for several hundred years, the word “Ratnakūṭa” referred only to a single sutra called the Kāśyapaparivarta Sūtra. The other sutras may have existed, but as independent texts.

Bodhiruchi, between 706 CE. - 713 CE, assembled the Ratnakūṭa collection we know today as containing 49 sutras.

nirdesha = “explanation”
paripṛcchā = “Questions of “N”
vyūha = “manifest power of”


1. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
2. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
3. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
4. Rk No. 4 : T. - # , Sukhāvatī vyūha, Trans.
5. Rk No. 5, T. 18, Amitabha-vyūha aka Larger Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, Lokakṣema.
6. Rk No. 6, T. 17, Akṣobhyatathāgatasyavyūha Sūtra, Lokakṣema.
7. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
8. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
9. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
10. Rk No. 10 : T. 8, Samantamukha-parivarta, Bodhiruci.
11. Rk No. 11 : T. 11, Rashmisamakta-nirdesha, Trans.
12. Rk No. 12: T. - 0 , Bodhisattva piṭaka Sūtra, Xuanzang (c. 602–664).
13. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
14. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
15. Rk No.15 : T.10, Manjusri-buddha-kshetra-guna-vyuha, Bodhiruci.
16. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
17. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
18. Rk No. 18 : T. - # , Rāṣṭrāpala pari prcchā, Trans.
19. Rk No. 19, U. - # , Ugra paripṛcchā Sūtra, Lokakṣema.
20. Rk No. # : T. - # , Vidyut prapta-prcchā, Trans.
21. Rk No. 21 : T. - # , Bhadra-maya kara-vyakarana, Trans.
22. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
23. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
24. Rk No. 24 :T. 15. , (Vinaya-vinishcaya) upali-paripṛcchā, Bodhiruci.
25. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
26. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
27. Rk No. 27 : T. 13 , Surata-paripṛcchā aka “Surata Sūtra”, Bodhiruci.
28. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
29. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
30. Rk No. 30 : T.14 , Sumati-drika-paripṛcchā, Bodhiruci.
31. Rk No. 31 : T. 3 , Gangottava paripṛcchā, Bodhiruci.
32. Rk No. 32 : T.7 , Ashokadatta-vyakavana, Buddhaśānta.
33. Rk No. 33 : T. 5 , Vimaladatta-paripṛcchā, Nich Taochen.
34. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
35. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
36. Rk No. # : T. - # , Susthitamati-paripṛcchā, Nich Taochen.
37. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
38. Rk No.38 : T.22 , Jnanottara-bodhisattva-paripṛcchā, Nandi.
39. Rk No. 39 : T.12 , Bhadrapala-shresthi paripṛcchā, Divākara.
40. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
41. Rk No. 41 : T. - # , Maitreya’s Prayer, Trans (soon, BY PKTC and Lama Tony Duff).
42. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
43. Rk No. 43, T. 20, Kāśyapaparivarta Sūtra, Lokakṣema.
44. Rk No. 44 : T.16, Ratna rāśi, Ven. Tao Kung, and then Jonathan Alan Silk (1994).
45. Rk No. 45 : T. - # , Aksayamati-paripṛcchā, Trans.
46. Rk No. # : T. 6, Saptashatika-Prajñāpāramitā, Mandra, see also the “Perfection of Wisdom in 700 Lines” translation by Edward Conze in his Perfect Wisdom: The Short Prajnaparamita Texts (2003).
47. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.
48. Rk No. # : T. 19 , Śrīmālā-devi-siṃhanāda, Trans.
49. Rk No. # : T. - # , TITLE, Trans.


4 Early References to these sutras:

Quoted in the Daśabhūmikavibhāṣa as translated by Lokakṣema
⁃ Rk No. 19, U., Ugra paripṛcchā Sūtra
⁃ Rk No. 33 : T. 5 , Vimaladatta-paripṛcchā

Reference to the name of the sutra found in the Daśabhūmikavibhāṣa as translated by Lokakṣema
⁃ Rk No. 43, T. 20, Kāśyapaparivarta Sūtra
⁃ Rk No. 45 : T.-#, Aksayamati-paripṛcchā


Some other related titles:



Notes on the Ratnakūṭa Collection by K. Priscilla Pedersen

https://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/ojs ... /8521/2428


‘Forest’: Boucher, Daniel. Bodhisattvas of the forest and the formation of the Mahāyāna - A Study and Translation of the Rā1ṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā-sūtra, Institute for the Study of Buddhist Traditions, 2008
‘4-G’: Glass, Andrew. Four Gandhari Samyuktagama Sutras: Senior Kharosthi Fragment 5. Univ of Washington Pr, 2008.
‘Origins’.: Silk, Jonathan A..The Origins and the History of the Mahāratnakūta Tradition of Mahayana Buddhism With a Study of the Ratna rāśi Sutra and Related Materials, Dissertation, University of Michigan. (1994)
‘RH-G’: Glass, Andrew, and Richard Salomon. A Gandhari Version of the Rhinoceros Sutra: British Library Kharosthi Fragment 5B. Univ of Washington Pr, 2001.
Rk.: Ratna Kūta
‘Treasury’: Chang, Garma C. C., ed. A Treasury of Mahayana Sutras: Selections from the Maharatnakuta Sutra. annotated edition. Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008.
‘Ugra’: Nattier, Jan. Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path According to the Inquiry of Ugra (Ugrapariprccha). New edition. Univ of Hawaii Pr, 2005.

:buddha1:
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby eijo » Wed Mar 27, 2013 4:48 pm

Good work! If you go here:

http://www.acmuller.net/descriptive_cat ... aisho.html

and scroll down to

T 310 K 22

T 310-01 K 22(1)

through

T 310-49 K 22(49)

you'll find a list of the sutras contained in the Ratnakuta collection
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Leo Rivers » Thu Mar 28, 2013 1:04 am

Taisho Index Whoa.


Thanks. Some browsing to do. :cheers:
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Aemilius » Wed Oct 15, 2014 8:59 am

There is an english translation of Lion's Roar of Queen Srimala sutra
Some of Rulu's translations probably belong to the Ratnakuta sutra, for example the Gangottara sutra and Maitreya sutra
And there is Ulrich Pagel's translation of Bodhisattvapitaka sutra
The Amitabhavyuha sutra and Sukhavativyuha sutra exist in several english versions

Ratnakuta sutras can be found with their sanskrit titles also in Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue
from page 12 onwards http://www.ucpress.edu/op.php?isbn=9780520031593
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Aemilius » Sat Oct 18, 2014 9:33 am

Seems that Rulu has removed some of his former translations in the sutrasmantras.info/ website, I can't find the Gangottara sutra nor the Maitreya sutra there anymore, ( why ? )

There is a comprehensive catalogue of all the different translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into english and to some other European languages
http://www.mbingenheimer.net/tools/bibls/transbibl.html
There seem to be several more translations from the Ratnakuta Sutra now, that could be of interest to You
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby longjie » Mon Nov 03, 2014 4:58 am

Speaking of the Gangottara Sutra, this has just gone up today:

http://lapislazulitexts.com/tripitaka/T11_0310_31

:reading:

It needs a bit of polishing and editing yet, but at least it's out there now.

Nothing is ever perfect the first time. I've been editing and reviewing my Diamond Sutra periodically for over 4 years now. :tongue:
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Leo Rivers » Wed Nov 05, 2014 5:01 pm

Speaking of the Gangottara Sutra, this has just gone up today:

http://lapislazulitexts.com/tripitaka/T11_0310_31


Thank you! I needed some good news - how did you know? :namaste:
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby longjie » Tue Nov 11, 2014 3:27 pm

Leo Rivers wrote:
Speaking of the Gangottara Sutra, this has just gone up today:

http://lapislazulitexts.com/tripitaka/T11_0310_31


Thank you! I needed some good news - how did you know? :namaste:

Ha, I also really like the Maharatnakuta -- it's full of no-nonsense early Mahayana Buddhism straight from India. So much of what became considered the "Mahayana" and "Sutrayana" in the later traditions seems more like scholasticism to me. Early Mahayana is more rough and mystical in purport, transmitted by people who took the bodhisattva path seriously, and who could be pretty radical about it.
:namaste:
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Leo Rivers » Wed Nov 12, 2014 5:59 pm

it's full of no-nonsense early
[emphisis mine]
Mahayana Buddhism straight from India. So much of what became considered the "Mahayana" and "Sutrayana" in the later traditions seems more like scholasticism to me. Early Mahayana is more...


Interestingly, there must have been many generations of spiritual dialogue represented in the texts of 185 CE, for instance. The earliest PPM is usually dated to 125 BCE. That means these Chinese translations were a photograph of internal Buddhist ferment 200 years old already! The Ratna was a product of a Classical buddhist era. The Buddhism of the 500s to 900s was post classsical stuff, compare the poetry of Sappho and physics of Alexandria to some late Medeval Roman or Arabic academic mixing Plato with a Grimore. For comparison in our terms, think of the state of pre-Hubble, (red-shoft 1929), pre-Eintsein Physics in the USA of 1817 compared to today, Most folks didn't know many of those stars wher eentire other galexies. That is the distance between the Early PPM and the Asta PPM we see transforming in the Chinese translations between 125 and 400 ish.

:namaste:
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Aemilius » Thu Nov 13, 2014 10:22 am

Leo Rivers wrote:
it's full of no-nonsense early
[emphisis mine]
Mahayana Buddhism straight from India. So much of what became considered the "Mahayana" and "Sutrayana" in the later traditions seems more like scholasticism to me. Early Mahayana is more...


Interestingly, there must have been many generations of spiritual dialogue represented in the texts of 185 CE, for instance. The earliest PPM is usually dated to 125 BCE. That means these Chinese translations were a photograph of internal Buddhist ferment 200 years old already! The Ratna was a product of a Classical buddhist era. The Buddhism of the 500s to 900s was post classsical stuff, compare the poetry of Sappho and physics of Alexandria to some late Medeval Roman or Arabic academic mixing Plato with a Grimore. For comparison in our terms, think of the state of pre-Hubble, (red-shoft 1929), pre-Eintsein Physics in the USA of 1817 compared to today, Most folks didn't know many of those stars wher eentire other galexies. That is the distance between the Early PPM and the Asta PPM we see transforming in the Chinese translations between 125 and 400 ish.

:namaste:


This dating of PP and Mahayana in general ignores the fact of oral tradition and all the laws that function in an oral tradition. The oral culture was vastly different from the modern culture of written texts. Unfortunately not much, or nothing at all, is left from the oral phase and the oral aspect of Buddhism, which must have continued parallel to the written texts for a millennium. We see only fragments or whole texts of the written tradition, we cannot hear fragments of oral sutras and their commentaries. Thus our view of the past gets severely distorted.
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby longjie » Mon Nov 17, 2014 3:19 am

Aemilius wrote:
Leo Rivers wrote:
it's full of no-nonsense early
[emphisis mine]
Mahayana Buddhism straight from India. So much of what became considered the "Mahayana" and "Sutrayana" in the later traditions seems more like scholasticism to me. Early Mahayana is more...


Interestingly, there must have been many generations of spiritual dialogue represented in the texts of 185 CE, for instance. The earliest PPM is usually dated to 125 BCE. That means these Chinese translations were a photograph of internal Buddhist ferment 200 years old already! The Ratna was a product of a Classical buddhist era. The Buddhism of the 500s to 900s was post classsical stuff, compare the poetry of Sappho and physics of Alexandria to some late Medeval Roman or Arabic academic mixing Plato with a Grimore. For comparison in our terms, think of the state of pre-Hubble, (red-shoft 1929), pre-Eintsein Physics in the USA of 1817 compared to today, Most folks didn't know many of those stars wher eentire other galexies. That is the distance between the Early PPM and the Asta PPM we see transforming in the Chinese translations between 125 and 400 ish.

:namaste:


This dating of PP and Mahayana in general ignores the fact of oral tradition and all the laws that function in an oral tradition. The oral culture was vastly different from the modern culture of written texts. Unfortunately not much, or nothing at all, is left from the oral phase and the oral aspect of Buddhism, which must have continued parallel to the written texts for a millennium. We see only fragments or whole texts of the written tradition, we cannot hear fragments of oral sutras and their commentaries. Thus our view of the past gets severely distorted.


As far as I know, writing was secondary in India through most of the history of Buddhism. Most Mahayana sutras -- including those in the Maharatnakuta -- would have been widely memorized and transmitted that way, rather than written down. There are anecdotes about Mahasamghikas in southern India reciting the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita. In fact, many Chinese translations were not "translated" from any Indian manuscript, but were rather recited in an Indic language, and then translated into Chinese.

The translation team would include one Indian monk who would recite the text, and then often at least one Central Asian multilingual expert who would help to interpret terms and translate the meanings into Chinese. Entire vinaya texts were memorized and transmitted this way without any physical text. Manuscripts in India tended to be used for preservation, but the normal process would be to memorize the sutra and then recite it regularly, even if the monastery had manuscripts available. The implication was probably that you didn't really "know" a sutra until you could recite it.

I don't know of any major works that would have been oral but not written down for posterity. The major figures and movements in Mahayana Buddhism seem well-represented with the received literature. What we may not have anymore is a clear grasp on the environment in which the sutras developed, and understanding that is a major undertaking.

For the Prajnaparamita sutras, I think the earliest manuscript fragments are dated to around 75 CE, and the contents are basically the same as the Chinese translation made by Lokaksema around 100 years later. Some earlier scholars like Conze speculate about 100 BCE this or that, but those dates were just arrived at by taking Lokaksema's translation date and then tacking on around 200-300 years for good measure.
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby Aemilius » Mon Nov 17, 2014 10:20 am

Albert B. Lord, who has in 1960's studied Serbian oral tradition of sung poetry, says that oral tradition is characterized by repetition. When oral works are written down they automatically get edited, revised and condensed. I have at sometime experimented by reading some sutras of Edward Conze translations and some Suttas from the Pali as fully as possible with all the repetitions that there have been. In the texts produced by Edward Conze and George Walshe the repetitions are marked, although they do not exist in the text itself. Thus it is possible to reconstruct a sutra with the repetitions that there were originally.

In the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra there are several passages that have been condensed and shortened, but you can still see its earlier oral form and structure. The formula "form is emptiness and emptiness is form..." must be repeated with the rest of skandhas inserted, i.e. "feeling is emptiness and emptiness is feeling etc, concepts are emptiness and emptiness is concepts etc, volitions are emptiness and emptiness is volitions etc, consciousness is emptiness and emptiness is consciousness etc.." Later in the Sutra you must to insert the rest of 18 Dhatus, and rest of the 12 Nidanas (twice), that are not anymore in the texts itself.
You can do the same with the some other sutras in The Short Perfection of Wisdom Texts ( E. Conze tr).

When you take a sutta form Digha Nikaya (George Walshe tr.) and put back all the repetitions that are omitted but that are still indicated in the text, a medium sutta takes about half an hour to read. But it gives a very different experience! This experience sheds some light on the character of the ancient buddhist culture and the nature of the oral culture in general. You get important insights form this experience.
Some sutras, and some translations of them, are so far edited that their oral structure is not anymore discernible.
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Re: A CONCISE RATNAKŪṬA (Jewel Heap Sutra) CONCORDANCE

Postby lorem » Mon Nov 17, 2014 1:07 pm

Thank you for this thread. I figured there was something to it. The FPMT translation (Churinoff) of the Vajra Cutter as I've said in other threads "works". Can't explain it really.

Will check out the Ratnakuta Sutras. Jewel Heap Sutra...hmm?

Yes I've also expanded out Heart Sutra and also tried reciting Atisha's Bodhisattva's Jewel Garland, and Lamp. I will practice more sutras. Got bored with just doing one or two sutras after a while.

Yeah the whole oral tradition fits. Interesting.

Thank you
I should be meditating.
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