他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

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他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Caoimhghín » Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm

At T1962.78c27 in 淨土十疑論 Ten Doubts on the Pure Land we encounter:
有二 种缘。一 者自力。二者他力。
There are two varieties of causes: firstly, the power of the self, secondly, the power of another.
So I had thought that 他力 was a largely Japanese coinage. I am wondering what other people can tell me about it's usage prior to the New Kamakura schools.

I am also a bit curious about this line:
又无女人二乘之心。纯一大乘。清净良伴。为此烦恼恶业。毕竟不起。遂至无生之位。
Moreover, there are no women or those with *dviyānikacitta; there are solely mahāyānikas, pure kalyāṇamitras. For this reason, kleśas and wicked karma, all in all, do not arise, continuing on like this to the anutpannā bhūmi.
*aspirations to śrāvakabuddhatva or pratyekabuddhatva, the buddhahoods of the two vehicles

Does this text really say there are no women in the Western Paradise?

How sure are we of the authorship of this text?
歸命本覺心法身常住妙法心蓮臺本來莊嚴三身徳三十七尊住心
城遠離因果法然具普門塵數諸三昧無邊徳海本圓滿還我頂禮心諸佛

In reverence for the root gnosis of the heart, the dharmakāya,
for the ever present good law of the heart, the lotus terrace,
for the inborn adornment of the trikāya, the thirty-seven sages dwelling in the heart,
for that which is removed from seed and fruit, the upright key to the universal gate,
for all boundless concentrations, the sea of virtue, the root perfection,
I prostrate, bowing to the hearts of all Buddhas.

胎藏金剛菩提心義略問答鈔, Treatise on the teaching of the gnostic heart of the womb and the diamond, T2397.1.470c5-8

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Queequeg » Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:03 pm

Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm
Does this text really say there are no women in the Western Paradise?
I believe the Pure Land Sutras say there are no women in Sukhavati. Women can't awaken... according to the Patriarchs...
Those who, even with distracted minds,
Entered a stupa compound
And chanted but once, “Namo Buddhaya!”
Have certainly attained the path of the buddhas.

-Lotus Sutra, Expedient Means Chapter

There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.
-Ayacana Sutta

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Caoimhghín » Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:04 pm

Is it the larger sūtra, the shorter, or both? I've not read them in their entirely.
歸命本覺心法身常住妙法心蓮臺本來莊嚴三身徳三十七尊住心
城遠離因果法然具普門塵數諸三昧無邊徳海本圓滿還我頂禮心諸佛

In reverence for the root gnosis of the heart, the dharmakāya,
for the ever present good law of the heart, the lotus terrace,
for the inborn adornment of the trikāya, the thirty-seven sages dwelling in the heart,
for that which is removed from seed and fruit, the upright key to the universal gate,
for all boundless concentrations, the sea of virtue, the root perfection,
I prostrate, bowing to the hearts of all Buddhas.

胎藏金剛菩提心義略問答鈔, Treatise on the teaching of the gnostic heart of the womb and the diamond, T2397.1.470c5-8

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Caoimhghín » Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:07 pm

This is a bit of an issue for me, because elsewhere in his canon, Venerable Zhiyi refutes this position. Hence why I asked if we are sure of the authorship of this work.
歸命本覺心法身常住妙法心蓮臺本來莊嚴三身徳三十七尊住心
城遠離因果法然具普門塵數諸三昧無邊徳海本圓滿還我頂禮心諸佛

In reverence for the root gnosis of the heart, the dharmakāya,
for the ever present good law of the heart, the lotus terrace,
for the inborn adornment of the trikāya, the thirty-seven sages dwelling in the heart,
for that which is removed from seed and fruit, the upright key to the universal gate,
for all boundless concentrations, the sea of virtue, the root perfection,
I prostrate, bowing to the hearts of all Buddhas.

胎藏金剛菩提心義略問答鈔, Treatise on the teaching of the gnostic heart of the womb and the diamond, T2397.1.470c5-8

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Queequeg » Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:18 pm

Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:04 pm
Is it the larger sūtra, the shorter, or both? I've not read them in their entirely.
Not sure. It may be both... Its been decades since I read them.
Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:07 pm
This is a bit of an issue for me, because elsewhere in his canon, Venerable Zhiyi refutes this position. Hence why I asked if we are sure of the authorship of this work.
Yes, I've heard that its not his work. Haven't read it in a while, but when I did, I remember thinking, Zhiyi did not write this.
Those who, even with distracted minds,
Entered a stupa compound
And chanted but once, “Namo Buddhaya!”
Have certainly attained the path of the buddhas.

-Lotus Sutra, Expedient Means Chapter

There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.
-Ayacana Sutta

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Astus » Thu Oct 03, 2019 10:41 pm

Queequeg wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:03 pm
Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm
Does this text really say there are no women in the Western Paradise?
I believe the Pure Land Sutras say there are no women in Sukhavati. Women can't awaken... according to the Patriarchs...
The so called three PL sutras do not say such a thing. See this topic on the issue: Women in Pure Land.

On the other hand, there are older versions of the Larger Sutra where the 2nd vow does exclude women, e.g. T12n362p301a27:

'The Second Vow: If, when I attain Buddhahood, may there be no women existing in my country. Women who desire to be born in my country will forthwith transform their bodies into those of men. All of the human beings and the species that flit and wriggle in the countless heavens who are reborn in my country will be transformed on a lotus flower in the pond of seven treasures, and they will become numberless bodhisattvas or arhats when they mature. Only if this vow is fulfilled, will I attain Boddhahood. If this vow is not fulfilled, may I never attain Buddhahood.'
(tr Yue XIAO)
1 Myriad dharmas are only mind.
Mind is unobtainable.
What is there to seek?

2 If the Buddha-Nature is seen,
there will be no seeing of a nature in any thing.

3 Neither cultivation nor seated meditation —
this is the pure Chan of Tathagata.

4 With sudden enlightenment to Tathagata Chan,
the six paramitas and myriad means
are complete within that essence.


1 Huangbo, T2012Ap381c1 2 Nirvana Sutra, T374p521b3; tr. Yamamoto 3 Mazu, X1321p3b23; tr. J. Jia 4 Yongjia, T2014p395c14; tr. from "The Sword of Wisdom"

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Queequeg » Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:59 pm

Astus wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 10:41 pm
Queequeg wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:03 pm
Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm
Does this text really say there are no women in the Western Paradise?
I believe the Pure Land Sutras say there are no women in Sukhavati. Women can't awaken... according to the Patriarchs...
The so called three PL sutras do not say such a thing. See this topic on the issue: Women in Pure Land.

On the other hand, there are older versions of the Larger Sutra where the 2nd vow does exclude women, e.g. T12n362p301a27:

'The Second Vow: If, when I attain Buddhahood, may there be no women existing in my country. Women who desire to be born in my country will forthwith transform their bodies into those of men. All of the human beings and the species that flit and wriggle in the countless heavens who are reborn in my country will be transformed on a lotus flower in the pond of seven treasures, and they will become numberless bodhisattvas or arhats when they mature. Only if this vow is fulfilled, will I attain Boddhahood. If this vow is not fulfilled, may I never attain Buddhahood.'
(tr Yue XIAO)
Its been a long time since I read them.

I also read Ojo Yoshu by Genshin around the same. I wonder if the descriptions of the Pure Lands there follow the more recent versions of the Sutras.

Anyway - the present versions don't include this detail about Amitayus' Pure Land. That may explain why Vasubandhu explained that there were no women - the version he was commenting on likely was an older version. Its also standard Mahayana convention that women are not present in the pure lands. Its like a perfect monastery where the awful temptations that women present are permanently banished. Perhaps the evolution of the sutras can be see as early feminism.

We can argue about how this is right or wrong, look at the historical factors and acknowledge that our predecessors in the lineages were misogynists etc.
Those who, even with distracted minds,
Entered a stupa compound
And chanted but once, “Namo Buddhaya!”
Have certainly attained the path of the buddhas.

-Lotus Sutra, Expedient Means Chapter

There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.
-Ayacana Sutta

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Astus » Fri Oct 04, 2019 3:16 pm

Queequeg wrote:
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:59 pm
Its also standard Mahayana convention that women are not present in the pure lands.
Abhirati, the land of Akshobhya, has women and men.
1 Myriad dharmas are only mind.
Mind is unobtainable.
What is there to seek?

2 If the Buddha-Nature is seen,
there will be no seeing of a nature in any thing.

3 Neither cultivation nor seated meditation —
this is the pure Chan of Tathagata.

4 With sudden enlightenment to Tathagata Chan,
the six paramitas and myriad means
are complete within that essence.


1 Huangbo, T2012Ap381c1 2 Nirvana Sutra, T374p521b3; tr. Yamamoto 3 Mazu, X1321p3b23; tr. J. Jia 4 Yongjia, T2014p395c14; tr. from "The Sword of Wisdom"

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Queequeg » Fri Oct 04, 2019 4:36 pm

Astus wrote:
Fri Oct 04, 2019 3:16 pm
Queequeg wrote:
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:59 pm
Its also standard Mahayana convention that women are not present in the pure lands.
Abhirati, the land of Akshobhya, has women and men.
Exceptions to the rule.
Those who, even with distracted minds,
Entered a stupa compound
And chanted but once, “Namo Buddhaya!”
Have certainly attained the path of the buddhas.

-Lotus Sutra, Expedient Means Chapter

There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.
-Ayacana Sutta

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Caoimhghín » Fri Oct 04, 2019 8:13 pm

This paper argues that T1962 is a post-Tang dynasty composition.
Interestingly, what actually enlightened him was not the three major Pure Land sūtra s but the Jingtu shiyi lun (《淨土十疑論》), whose authorship has been mistakenly attributed to Zhiyi.[31]
Footnote [31]:
Note that Tiantai shiyi lun quotes a number of works produced in Tang times. On the other hand, those prominent authors engaged in the teaching of Pure Land devotion during the Tang, such as Jiacai (迦才, ca.620~680), Huaigan (懷感, dates unclear), kuiji (窺基, 632~682), Daojing (道鏡,dates unclear) and Shandao (善道,dates unclear), never quoted this work. Pure Land authors in the Song not only quoted this work but also wrote preface to it. Thus the author could not be Zhiyi, nor could it be any of the Tang authors named above as suggested by some Japanese scholars, in particular Sato Tetsuei, mentioned in Leo Pruden’s “The Ching-t’u shih-i-lun” in Eastern Buddhist, 6:1 (May, 1973) pp. 126-157. The author is very likely a Tiantai monk in late Tang or early Song.
歸命本覺心法身常住妙法心蓮臺本來莊嚴三身徳三十七尊住心
城遠離因果法然具普門塵數諸三昧無邊徳海本圓滿還我頂禮心諸佛

In reverence for the root gnosis of the heart, the dharmakāya,
for the ever present good law of the heart, the lotus terrace,
for the inborn adornment of the trikāya, the thirty-seven sages dwelling in the heart,
for that which is removed from seed and fruit, the upright key to the universal gate,
for all boundless concentrations, the sea of virtue, the root perfection,
I prostrate, bowing to the hearts of all Buddhas.

胎藏金剛菩提心義略問答鈔, Treatise on the teaching of the gnostic heart of the womb and the diamond, T2397.1.470c5-8

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by FromTheEarth » Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:07 am

Shinkō Mochizuki, I think, was the first one who cast doubts on the authenticity of the Ten Doubts, and had done it quite conclusively. In addition to its anachronistic quotation of one anecdote mocking the Maitreya's Pure Land unknown until Xuanzang's era, this treatise was also not mentioned in the early catalogs/biographies of Ven. Zhiyi.

Personally, when I first encountered this text, its undermining Maitreya's Pure Land/the Tusita Heaven almost immediately offended me. Put aside the controversy over which Pure Land Zhiyi chose to go after this death, his teacher Huisi was a fervent advocate of the Maitreya Faith, not to mention the last chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Hard to imagine that Zhiyi would have written something like this.

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Caoimhghín » Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:50 pm

From footnote 52 in Robert Sharf's On Pure Land Buddhism and Chan/Pure Land Syncretism in Medieval China:
Among the texts traditionally attributed to Chih-i are the Ching-t’u shih-i lun 淨土十疑論 (T.1961), the Wu-fang-pien nien-fo men 五方便念佛門 (T.1962), the Kuan Wu-liang-shou-fo ching shu 觀無量壽佛經疏 (T.1750), and the O-mi-t’o ching i chi 阿彌陀經義記 (T.1755). Scholars now believe that the extant Ching-t’u shih-i lun is a later work, probably dating to the period 695-774 (Pruden 1973:129), but a work of that name was clearly associated with Chih-i in the T’ang; see Robson 2002:557, who references a stele inscription by Liu Tsung-yüan 柳宗元 (773-819). The authenticity of Chih-i’s Pure Land commentaries is similarly in doubt. However, Chih-i did make a significant contribution to Pure Land thought; see esp. his analysis of the Pure Land in the Wei-mo ching lüeh-shu 維摩經略疏, T.1778: 38.564a-565b (Mochizuki 1942: 104-113; Chappell 1977: 32-36), and his detailed analysis of the pratyutpanna-samdhi—the centrepiece of the “constantly walking samdhi” (ch’ang-hsing san-mei 常行三昧)—in the Mo-ho chih-kuan 摩訶止觀 (Stevenson 1986: 58-61).
From later in the paper, the works cited above:

Pruden, Leo 1973 “The Ching-t’u Shih-i lun.” Eastern Buddhist 6 (1): 126-157.

Robson, James 2002 “Imagining Nanyue: A Religious History of the Southern Marchmount through the Tang Dynasty (618-907).” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.

Mochizuki Shinkō 1942 Chūgoku jōdo kyō shi. Tokyo: Hōzōkan.

Chappell, David W. 1977 “Chinese Buddhist Interpretations of the Pure Lands.” In Buddhist and Taoist Studies 1 (Asian Studies at Hawai‘i, no. 18), edited by MichaelSaso and David W. Chappell, 22-53. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Stevenson, Daniel Bruce 1986 “The Four Kinds of Samādhi in Early T’ien-t’ai Buddhism.” In Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism (Kuroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism, no. 4), edited by Peter N. Gregory, 45-97. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.


The author of the paper directs us to Ven Zhìyǐ's commentary on the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa (維摩經略疏) for a (concievably more authentic) "significant contribution to Pure Land thought" from Ven Zhìyǐ.
FromTheEarth wrote:
Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:07 am
Shinkō Mochizuki, I think, was the first one who cast doubts on the authenticity of the Ten Doubts, and had done it quite conclusively.
While researching, I've certainly noticed his name cited quite frequently. Is his paper in English?
歸命本覺心法身常住妙法心蓮臺本來莊嚴三身徳三十七尊住心
城遠離因果法然具普門塵數諸三昧無邊徳海本圓滿還我頂禮心諸佛

In reverence for the root gnosis of the heart, the dharmakāya,
for the ever present good law of the heart, the lotus terrace,
for the inborn adornment of the trikāya, the thirty-seven sages dwelling in the heart,
for that which is removed from seed and fruit, the upright key to the universal gate,
for all boundless concentrations, the sea of virtue, the root perfection,
I prostrate, bowing to the hearts of all Buddhas.

胎藏金剛菩提心義略問答鈔, Treatise on the teaching of the gnostic heart of the womb and the diamond, T2397.1.470c5-8

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by FromTheEarth » Mon Oct 07, 2019 3:00 am

Caoimhghín wrote:
Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:50 pm
While researching, I've certainly noticed his name cited quite frequently. Is his paper in English?
Sorry but not that I am aware of.

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Aemilius » Wed Oct 09, 2019 8:51 am

Queequeg wrote:
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:59 pm
Astus wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 10:41 pm
Queequeg wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:03 pm

I believe the Pure Land Sutras say there are no women in Sukhavati. Women can't awaken... according to the Patriarchs...
The so called three PL sutras do not say such a thing. See this topic on the issue: Women in Pure Land.

On the other hand, there are older versions of the Larger Sutra where the 2nd vow does exclude women, e.g. T12n362p301a27:

'The Second Vow: If, when I attain Buddhahood, may there be no women existing in my country. Women who desire to be born in my country will forthwith transform their bodies into those of men. All of the human beings and the species that flit and wriggle in the countless heavens who are reborn in my country will be transformed on a lotus flower in the pond of seven treasures, and they will become numberless bodhisattvas or arhats when they mature. Only if this vow is fulfilled, will I attain Boddhahood. If this vow is not fulfilled, may I never attain Buddhahood.'
(tr Yue XIAO)
Its been a long time since I read them.

I also read Ojo Yoshu by Genshin around the same. I wonder if the descriptions of the Pure Lands there follow the more recent versions of the Sutras.

Anyway - the present versions don't include this detail about Amitayus' Pure Land. That may explain why Vasubandhu explained that there were no women - the version he was commenting on likely was an older version. Its also standard Mahayana convention that women are not present in the pure lands. Its like a perfect monastery where the awful temptations that women present are permanently banished. Perhaps the evolution of the sutras can be see as early feminism.

We can argue about how this is right or wrong, look at the historical factors and acknowledge that our predecessors in the lineages were misogynists etc.
There are different realms, that is to say the procreation of new offspring happens in different ways in different realms. In the Abhidharmakosha as well as in the Shurangama sutra four or six levels of sexual behaviour are explained, these take place in the six heavens of the kamaloka. Above kamaloka, or the realm of sense desire, are the four dhyana heavens.
The devas or gods are divided into different sexes, at least in the kamaloka heavens, but the difference between sexes is more subtle than in the human realm. The term "woman" (or "man") does not have the same meaning in the deva realms, or it in the pure realms, as it has in the human realm.
If beings are born into a world by transformation, what is "a woman" and what is "a man"?
svaha
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Sarvē mānavāḥ svatantrāḥ samutpannāḥ vartantē api ca, gauravadr̥śā adhikāradr̥śā ca samānāḥ ēva vartantē. Ētē sarvē cētanā-tarka-śaktibhyāṁ susampannāḥ santi. Api ca, sarvē’pi bandhutva-bhāvanayā parasparaṁ vyavaharantu."
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1. (in english and sanskrit)

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Aemilius » Wed Oct 09, 2019 12:43 pm

Queequeg wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:03 pm
Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm
Does this text really say there are no women in the Western Paradise?
I believe the Pure Land Sutras say there are no women in Sukhavati. Women can't awaken... according to the Patriarchs...
In the Perfection of Wisdom in 700 lines, at the end of the part A, it is said: "Thereupon on that occasion, through the Buddha's might the earth shook in six ways. And the thought of 16 000 monks were freed from outflows without any further clinging, and 700 nuns, 300 laymen, 40 000 laywomen and 6000 niyutas of kotis of gods of the sphere of sense-desire produced the dispassionate, unstained eye of Dharma in the dharmas."

translation of Edward Conze in Perfect wisdom, Short Prajñaparamita Texts
svaha
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Sarvē mānavāḥ svatantrāḥ samutpannāḥ vartantē api ca, gauravadr̥śā adhikāradr̥śā ca samānāḥ ēva vartantē. Ētē sarvē cētanā-tarka-śaktibhyāṁ susampannāḥ santi. Api ca, sarvē’pi bandhutva-bhāvanayā parasparaṁ vyavaharantu."
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1. (in english and sanskrit)

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Queequeg » Wed Oct 09, 2019 1:36 pm

Aemilius wrote:
Wed Oct 09, 2019 12:43 pm
Queequeg wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 9:03 pm
Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm
Does this text really say there are no women in the Western Paradise?
I believe the Pure Land Sutras say there are no women in Sukhavati. Women can't awaken... according to the Patriarchs...
In the Perfection of Wisdom in 700 lines, at the end of the part A, it is said: "Thereupon on that occasion, through the Buddha's might the earth shook in six ways. And the thought of 16 000 monks were freed from outflows without any further clinging, and 700 nuns, 300 laymen, 40 000 laywomen and 6000 niyutas of kotis of gods of the sphere of sense-desire produced the dispassionate, unstained eye of Dharma in the dharmas."

translation of Edward Conze in Perfect wisdom, Short Prajñaparamita Texts
I admit I'm not knowledgeable on the subject and sloppy with expressing myself. I should clarify... I meant to say, women can awaken but they can't be Buddhas according to conventional Mahayana, according to the partriarchs... and by that I meant in a bit of a cheeky way to refer to the uptight men who have been particularly attached to their male forms and bent Dharma to fit their views...
Those who, even with distracted minds,
Entered a stupa compound
And chanted but once, “Namo Buddhaya!”
Have certainly attained the path of the buddhas.

-Lotus Sutra, Expedient Means Chapter

There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.
-Ayacana Sutta

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Aemilius » Thu Oct 10, 2019 9:16 am

According to the Buddhist view of reincarnation you are not a man or a woman (or human, animal, god, etc) permanently.
svaha
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Sarvē mānavāḥ svatantrāḥ samutpannāḥ vartantē api ca, gauravadr̥śā adhikāradr̥śā ca samānāḥ ēva vartantē. Ētē sarvē cētanā-tarka-śaktibhyāṁ susampannāḥ santi. Api ca, sarvē’pi bandhutva-bhāvanayā parasparaṁ vyavaharantu."
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1. (in english and sanskrit)

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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Queequeg » Thu Oct 10, 2019 1:41 pm

Aemilius wrote:
Thu Oct 10, 2019 9:16 am
According to the Buddhist view of reincarnation you are not a man or a woman (or human, animal, god, etc) permanently.
And yet we see a persistent emphasis on people's sex throughout the stories. We can try to close discussions by appealing to higher teachings, but that does not erase the volumes that present a different view.

We need to address the issue head on and call it what it is rather than try to rationalize with footnotes: "What they really mean is..." In the long run, this really doesn't help. It demands compromises and awkward positions.

Misogyny is an undeniable legacy in almost all cultures. The few matriarchal and egalitarian societies are exceptions to the rule and remarkable for that reason. We ought to just face it, deal with it, every time it rears its head instead of making excuses.

That said, we ought to avoid the extreme of forming antagonistic postures also.

It is what it is.
Those who, even with distracted minds,
Entered a stupa compound
And chanted but once, “Namo Buddhaya!”
Have certainly attained the path of the buddhas.

-Lotus Sutra, Expedient Means Chapter

There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.
-Ayacana Sutta

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Aemilius
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Re: 他力/"Other-power" in 淨土十疑論/"Ten Doubts"

Post by Aemilius » Fri Oct 11, 2019 8:48 am

Caoimhghín wrote:
Thu Oct 03, 2019 6:42 pm
At T1962.78c27 in 淨土十疑論 Ten Doubts on the Pure Land we encounter:
有二 种缘。一 者自力。二者他力。
There are two varieties of causes: firstly, the power of the self, secondly, the power of another.
So I had thought that 他力 was a largely Japanese coinage. I am wondering what other people can tell me about it's usage prior to the New Kamakura schools.
Here it says that the terms self-power and other-power were coined by T'an-luan:
"4. Tao-ch'o (Jp. Doshaku) (562-645 C.E.)
Tao-ch'o, revising Nagarjuna's Difficult and Easy Paths by employing T'an-luan's distinction between self-power and other-power, divides the whole of Buddhist teachings into the Sacred Path (a.k.a. the Path of Sages) and the Pure Land Path. The former leads to attainment in this world by one's own efforts, and the latter to attainment in the Pure Land through the Other Power of Amida Buddha. He states that no one in the Age of the Last Dharma (Jp. "Mappo") can attain enlightenment by means of the Sacred Path and that only the nembutsu of the Pure Land Path is effective in leading one to Buddhahood. "
taken from http://web.mit.edu/stclair/www/patriarchs.html
svaha
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Sarvē mānavāḥ svatantrāḥ samutpannāḥ vartantē api ca, gauravadr̥śā adhikāradr̥śā ca samānāḥ ēva vartantē. Ētē sarvē cētanā-tarka-śaktibhyāṁ susampannāḥ santi. Api ca, sarvē’pi bandhutva-bhāvanayā parasparaṁ vyavaharantu."
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1. (in english and sanskrit)

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