http://www.sutrajournal.com/the-tantric ... her-wallis
The main purpose of this paper is to gather in one place evidence that has been piling up for some years in secondary sources, but the full implications of which are not yet apparent to most scholars who are not specialists in the philological analysis of the primary sources for the study of Tantra. The main thesis of this paper is that in the medieval period, Tantric Buddhism (mantranaya, vajrayāna) and Tantric Śaivism (mantramārga) were conterminous, coeval, and co-functional. In fact, I believe the evidence supports the notion that these two were co-functional and conterminous to roughly the same degree as Śaivism was with Brahmanism (vaidika-dharma), circa the 10th century CE, thereby belying the notion that the latter two can be considered two branches of a single “Hinduism” in the period under discussion. The consequence of this is to more firmly establish the invalidity of the use of the term Hinduism as an emic signifier prior to the 11th century, though that is a corollary and not the primary purpose of the present paper.