Lotus Sutra, Chapter 16, trilingual phonological gloss

Discuss and learn about the traditional Mahayana scriptures, without assuming that any one school ‘owns’ the only correct interpretation.
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Coëmgenu
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Lotus Sutra, Chapter 16, trilingual phonological gloss

Post by Coëmgenu » Wed Jul 12, 2017 3:39 am

I had too much time on my hands. This was the result. We'll see if I try to finish this eventually.

This is the verse section from the 16th varga of the Lotus Sūtra, presented in contemporary Mandarin pīnyīn, Baxter-Sagart's reconstructed historical pronunciations (corresponding to Middle Chinese, loosely when these characters/readings would have been borrowed into Japanese), and the gongyō as pronounced traditionally in Japanese.
「自我得佛來,  所經諸劫數,
zì wǒ dé fó lái, suǒ jīng zhū jié shǔ,
dzjɪ ŋɑ tək bɨut lʌi, ʃɨʌ keŋ tɕia kɨɐp ʃɨo,
dzyi nga tûk byut lûi [û like in English "gut"], shyû keng tchsya kyûp shyo,

ji ga toku bur rai, sho kyo sho kos-shu,

 無量百千萬,  億載阿僧祇,
wú liàng bǎi qiān wàn, yì zài ā sēng zhǐ,
mɨo lɨɐŋ pˠæk tsen mʉɐn, ʔɨk dzʌi ʔɑ səŋ ɡiᴇ,
myo lyang pwaek tsen mwû, yk dzûi a sûng gye,

mu-ryo hyaku sen man, o-ku sai asō-gi,

 常說法教化,  無數億眾生,
cháng shuō fǎ jiāo huà, wú shù yì zhòng shēng,
dʑɨɐŋ ɕiuᴇt pɨɐp kˠau hˠua, mɨo ʃɨo ʔɨk tɕɨuŋ ʃˠæŋ
jyûng tchsywet pyûp kwau hwua, myo shyo yk tchsyung shwaeng

jō sep-pō kyō-ke, mu-shu oku shu-jō,

 令入於佛道。  爾來無量劫,
lìng rù yú fó dào. Ěr lái wú liáng jié,
liᴇŋ ȵiɪp ʔɨʌ bɨu dɑuX. ƝiᴇX lʌi mɨo  lɨɐŋ kɨɐp
lieng nyip ‘eû byu daoch [as in Scottish “loch”]. Nyiech lûi myo lyang kyap

ryō nyū o butsu dō. Ni-rai mu-ryō kō,

 為度眾生故,  方便現涅槃,
wéi dù zhòng shēng gù, fāng pián xiàn niè pán,
ɦˠiuᴇ duo t͡ɕɨuŋ ʃˠæŋ kuo, bʉɐŋ biᴇn ɦen net buɑn,
hwae dwo tshchyung shwaeng kwo, bwang byen hyen net bwan,

i do shu-jō ko, hō-ben gen ne-han,

 而實不滅度,  常住此說法。
ér shí bù miè dù, cháng zhù shuō fǎ,
ȵɨ ʑiɪt pɨu miᴇt duo, d͡ʑɨɐŋ ɖɨo ɕiuᴇt pɨɐp,
nyi zyit pyu myet dwo dzyûng dyo tchwet pyûp.

ni jitsu fu metsu-do, jō jū shi sep-pō.
世尊在靈山會上拈華示眾眾皆默然唯迦葉破顏微笑世尊云
The Lord dwelt at the Vulture Peak with the assembly and plucked a flower as a teaching. The myriad totality were silent, save for Kāśyapa, whose face cracked in a faint smile. The Lord spoke.

吾有正法眼藏涅槃妙心實相無相微妙法門不立文字教外別傳付囑摩訶迦葉。
I have the treasure of the true dharma eye, I have nirvāṇa as wondrous citta, I know signless dharmatā, the subtle dharma-gate, which is not standing on written word, which is external to scriptures, which is a special dispensation, which is entrusted to Mahākāśyapa.

ItsRaining
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Re: Lotus Sutra, Chapter 16, trilingual phonological gloss

Post by ItsRaining » Wed Jul 12, 2017 11:59 am

So 佛 used to be starting with a "b" rather than a "f" in Old Chinese? I always thought it was weird "Fo-Tuo" didn't sound like "Bu-ddha".

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Coëmgenu
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Re: Lotus Sutra, Chapter 16, trilingual phonological gloss

Post by Coëmgenu » Wed Jul 12, 2017 1:49 pm

ItsRaining wrote:So 佛 used to be starting with a "b" rather than a "f" in Old Chinese? I always thought it was weird "Fo-Tuo" didn't sound like "Bu-ddha".
Yes, but this is Middle Chinese here. Old Chinese has consonant clusters that break the mind.
世尊在靈山會上拈華示眾眾皆默然唯迦葉破顏微笑世尊云
The Lord dwelt at the Vulture Peak with the assembly and plucked a flower as a teaching. The myriad totality were silent, save for Kāśyapa, whose face cracked in a faint smile. The Lord spoke.

吾有正法眼藏涅槃妙心實相無相微妙法門不立文字教外別傳付囑摩訶迦葉。
I have the treasure of the true dharma eye, I have nirvāṇa as wondrous citta, I know signless dharmatā, the subtle dharma-gate, which is not standing on written word, which is external to scriptures, which is a special dispensation, which is entrusted to Mahākāśyapa.

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Coëmgenu
Posts: 1549
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Re: Lotus Sutra, Chapter 16, trilingual phonological gloss

Post by Coëmgenu » Wed Jul 12, 2017 3:40 pm

我常住於此,  以諸神通力,
wǒ cháng zhù yú cǐ, yǐ zhū shén tōng lì,
ŋɑX d͡ʑɨɐŋ ɖɨoH ʔɨʌ t͡sʰiᴇX, jɨ t͡ɕɨʌ ʑiɪn tʰuŋ lɨk,
ngach dzyûng dyoch 'yû tshyech, ji tshyû zshiyn thung lik,

Ga jō jū o shi, i sho jin-zū-riki,

 令顛倒眾生,  雖近而不見。
lìng diān dǎo zhòng shēng, suī jìn ér bù jiàn
liᴇŋ ten tɑu t͡ɕɨuŋ ʃˠæŋ, siuɪ ɡɨn ȵɨ pɨu ken.
lyeng ten tao tschyung shwaeng, syui gin ñi pyu ken.

ryō ten-dō shu-jo, sui gon ni fu ken.

 眾見我滅度,  廣供養舍利,
zhòng suī wǒ miè dù, guǎng gōng yǎng shè lì,
t͡ɕɨuŋ siuɪ ŋɑX miᴇt duo, kwɑŋ kɨoŋ jɨɐŋ ɕiaX liɪH,
tchyung syui ngach myet dwo, kwang kyong jyûng schyach lyich,

Shu ken ga metsu-do, kō ku-yō sha-ri,

 咸皆懷戀慕,  而生渴仰心。
xián jiē huái liàn mù, ér shēng kě yǎng xīn.
ɦˠɛm kˠɛi ɦˠuɛi liuᴇn muo, ȵɨ ʃˠæŋ kʰɑt ŋɨɐŋ siɪm.
hwem kwei hwei llwen ["ll" as in "ly" or "lj"] mwo, ñi shwaeng khat ngyûng syim.

gen kai e ren-bo, ni shō katsu-gō shin.

 眾生既信伏,  質直意柔軟,
zhòng shēng jì xìn fú, zhì zhí yì róu ruǎn,
t͡ɕɨuŋ ʃˠæŋ kɨi siɪnH bɨuH, t͡ɕiɪt ɖɨk ʔɨ ȵɨu ȵiuᴇn,
tschyung shwaeng kyi syinch byuch, tschyit dyik 'i ñu ñwen,

Shu-jō ki shin-buku, shichi-jiki i nyū-nan,

 一心欲見佛,  不自惜身命。
yī xīn yù suī fó, bù zì xī shēn mìng.
ʔiɪt siɪm jɨok siuɪ bɨut, pɨu dzjɪ siᴇk ɕiɪn mˠiæŋ.
'yit syim jyok syui byut, pyu dzji syek schyin mwyaeng.

is-shin yok-ken butsu, fu ji shaku shin-myō.
I bet any Western Nichiren practitioners reading this are glad for conservative Japanese phonetics and their stubborn refusal to have anything to do with these wild foreign sounds! I can't imagine trying to learn this in this wild mode of Chinese.

In many places, we can note that the Japanese, while phonologically simplified, accurately preserves a lot of phonological features of Middle Chinese before Middle Chinese underwent tonogenesis (development of a "tonal system", which changed the phonology considerably).
世尊在靈山會上拈華示眾眾皆默然唯迦葉破顏微笑世尊云
The Lord dwelt at the Vulture Peak with the assembly and plucked a flower as a teaching. The myriad totality were silent, save for Kāśyapa, whose face cracked in a faint smile. The Lord spoke.

吾有正法眼藏涅槃妙心實相無相微妙法門不立文字教外別傳付囑摩訶迦葉。
I have the treasure of the true dharma eye, I have nirvāṇa as wondrous citta, I know signless dharmatā, the subtle dharma-gate, which is not standing on written word, which is external to scriptures, which is a special dispensation, which is entrusted to Mahākāśyapa.

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