A helpful mapping

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A helpful mapping

Postby Admin_PC » Tue Dec 06, 2016 5:31 pm

If anybody was curious how to put Pure Land into terms of "mainstream/general Buddhism".

The suttas to Mahanama.
Buddhanussati as practice:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

The sutta to Sarakaani.
Alcoholics can be Stream Enterers (and faith will keep you out of hell):
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .wlsh.html

The Mahaparinibbana sutta has tons of goodies:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .vaji.html
Part 1 verse 31 - Buddha talks about making offerings to devas and how it will bring good fortune. :jawdrop:
Part 4 verse 56 - Cunda is promised heavenly birth (and other things) for offering the last meal to the Tathagata, aludes to the fact that other meals offered are also meritorious.
Part 5 verse 22 - Dying on a pilgrimage (with a heart established in faith) to a Buddhist holy site leads to birth in heaven.
Part 5 verse 24-31 - Buddha talks about how the householders should venerate him (but the monks should focus on practice) and that if they do venerate him (at a stupa) and have faith, they will be reborn in heaven.


The original Milindipanha from Sanskrit (via Chinese):
http://media.wix.com/ugd/9904ee_5166980 ... f20cac.pdf
p285 #62 - Mindfulness of the Buddha leads to heaven
p297-298 #67 - giving flowers leads to heaven
p299-300 #68 - knowing about the precepts and still doing wrong leads to less bad karma than unknowingly doing wrong

The Pali Milindipanha:
http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/milinda.pdf
Chapter 25 talks about how venerating relics can lead one to heaven.
Chapter 71 talks about how giving leads to heaven.

-----------------

3 Marks of Existence:
1. Impermanence (Anicca) - Pure Land practice focuses on the fact that life is short and that this Saha world is unstable.
2. Suffering (Dukkha) - Pure Land practice focuses on the fact that the unstable nature of this Saha world leads to anguish.
3. Non-self (Anatman) - Pure Land doctrine teaches practitioners to recognize that they are foolish beings, riddled with afflictive/destructive emotions (kileshas), and ultimately unreliable.

3 Fold practice:
1. Ethics (Sila) - Pure Land teaches Buddhist ethics, but takes it one step further and emphasizes how as hard as we try, we can't follow them perfectly. This teaches the remorse for the unskillful nature of the practitioner that minimizes the negative karmic fruits of actions.
2. Mental training (Samadhi) - This is achieved through recitation of the Nembutsu.
3. Wisdom (Panna) - This is reserved as a fruit of the Pure Land practice: seeing the Buddha, learning from him, and knowing the minds of all Buddhas.

4 Noble Truths:
1. The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha) - Pure Land practice focuses on the fact that the unstable nature of this Saha world leads to anguish.
2. The Truth of Origin of Suffering (Samudaya) - Pure Land doctrine teaches practitioners to recognize their foolish nature, to realize how they are riddled with afflictive emotions (kileshas), and to understand that the cause is due to the 3 poisons of craving, aversion, and ignorance.
3. The Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Nirodha) - Pure Land doctrine teaches that practitioners will escape suffering and lead others to escape suffering once they are born in the Pure Land, become bodhisattvas & Buddhas, and are free of the 3 poisons.
4. The Truth of the Path to the Cessation of Suffering (Magga) - Pure Land teaches that the path to escape suffering is (in this life) arrived at through the practice of the Nembutsu.

8 Fold Path:
1. Right Understanding(sammā diṭṭhi, S. samyag-dṛṣṭi) - Understanding that we are limited beings, that this world is temporary, that karmic actions have results, and understanding that the only way out is through the Dharma.
2. Right Intention (sammā saṅkappa, S. samyak-saṃkalpa) - The intention to escape suffering by going to the Pure Land, to become a Buddha (developing relative bodhicitta), and to continue the work by helping others escape suffering.
3. Right Speech (sammā vācā, S. samyag-vāc) - Recitation of the Nembutsu. Reciting the Name of the Buddha is considered the highest form of Right Speech.
4. Right Action (sammā kammanta, S. samyak-karmānta) - Recitation of the Nembutsu. Reciting the Name of the Buddha is considered the highest form of Right Action.
5. Right Livelihood (sammā ājīva, S. samyag-ājīva) - The Pure Land take on this is that our karma in the past has led to our current conditions and if we cannot avoid doing jobs that are in violation of Right Livelihood, at least understanding remorse for it and knowing that it is temporary for this lifetime.
6. Right Energy (sammā vāyāma, S. samyag-vyāyāma) - Pure Land practice is to be done with energy (viriya).
7. Right Mindfulness (sammā sati, S. samyak-smṛti) - Mindfulness of the Buddha (literal translation of Nembutsu) is considered the highest form of Right Mindfulness.
8. Right Unification (sammā samādhi, S. samyak-samādhi) - Pure Land aspires for Mindfulness of the Buddha Samadhi (Nembutsu Sanmai), the state at which one sees the Pure Land, sees the Buddha, and ultimately learns the mind of all Buddhas. Also can be achieved by the natural outpouring of compassion & skillful qualities once unshakable faith has been established.

The 37 limbs of Enlightenment:
The 37 limbs of Enlightenment are referenced explicitly in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra.
- The Four Establishments of Mindfulness:
- 1. Mindfulness of the body (kāyānupassanā, S. kayānupasthāna) - Mindfulness of the body of the Buddha & the attributes of the Pure Land. In Pure Land vipassana = visualizing the Buddha. Pure Land also involves being mindful that this life & this body are temporary.
- 2. Mindfulness of feelings (vedanānupassanā, S. vedanānupasthāna) - Mindfulness of the great compassion of the Buddha (like a parent) & the qualities of the Pure Land. Pure Land also involves being mindful of the unskillful states of our mind, riddled with afflictive emotions (kileshas).
- 3. Mindfulness of mental states (cittānupassanā, S. cittanupasthāna) - Mindfulness of the wisdom of the Buddha & certain qualities of the Pure Land. Inherent in this is the mindfulness of being able to view the Pure Land and the Buddha. Pure Land also involves being mindful of the restless nature of our monkey minds while we recite.
- 4. Mindfulness of mental qualities (dhammānupassanā, S. dharmanupasthāna) - Mindfulness of the various qualities of the Buddha & the Pure Land, including wisdom & compassion. Pure Land also involves being mindful of the limited, worldly nature of many of our qualities.

- Four right exertions
- 1. Exertion for the preventing of unskillful states to arise - Achieved during Nembutsu (especially during Nembutsu Samadhi), but also the realization that we are unskillful in body, speech, and mind. Also can be achieved by the natural outpouring of compassion & skillful qualities once unshakable faith has been established.
- 2. Exertion for the abandoning of the already arisen unskillful states - Achieved during Nembutsu (especially during Nembutsu Samadhi), but also learning to lament that we are unskillful in body, speech, and mind. Also can be achieved by the natural outpouring of compassion & skillful qualities once unshakable faith has been established.
- 3. Exertion for the arising of skillful states - Achieved during Nembutsu (especially during Nembutsu Samadhi), but also learning that as limited, foolish beings, that we should feel gratitude of the compassion of the Buddha. Also can be achieved by the natural outpouring of compassion & skillful qualities once unshakable faith has been established.
- 4. Exertion for the sustaining and increasing of arisen skillful states - Achieved during Nembutsu (especially during Nembutsu Samadhi), but also through continuous Nembutsu throughout one's life. Also can be achieved by the natural outpouring of compassion & skillful qualities once unshakable faith has been established.

- Four bases of power
- 1. Will (chanda, S. chanda) - the single-minded desire to be born in the Pure Land.
- 2. Energy (viriya, S. virya) - reciting the Nembutsu energetically.
- 3. Consciousness (citta, S. citta) - aspiring for birth in the Pure Land to become a Buddha, developing bodhicitta.
- 4. Examination (vīmaṁsa or vīmaŋsā, S. mimāṃsā) - examination of our own limited qualities as foolish beings, as well as the qualities of the Buddha and the Pure Land.

- Five faculties
- 1. Conviction (saddhā, S. śraddā) - Faith in the 18th Vow for birth in the Pure Land and in the wisdom & compassion of the Buddhas.
- 2. Energy (viriya, s. virya) - Energetically reciting the Nembutsu
- 3. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti) - Mindfulness of the Buddha through Nembutsu
- 4. Unification (samādhi, S. samādhi) - Nembutsu Samadhi, seeing the Pure Land, seeing the Buddha, and gaining wisdom. Unshakable faith is also sometimes referred to as a form of samadhi.
- 5. Wisdom (panna, S. prajñā) - Wisdom in the Pure Land sense means relying on the pure wisdom of the Buddha and not seeking personal happiness, but aspiring towards non-retrogression on the path to Buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings.

- Five powers
- Culmination of the 5 faculties above

- Seven factors of Enlightenment
- 1. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti) - Mindfulness of the Buddha is considered the highest form of Mindfulness.
- 2. Investigation (dhamma vicaya, S. dharmapravicaya) - Reading & reciting the sutras & commentaries.
- 3. Energy (viriya, S. virya) - Energetically reciting the Nembutsu throughout one's life.
- 4. Joy (pīti, S. prīti) - One thought moment of joy at hearing about the vows of Amida and following the Pure Land path mentioned in the Larger Sutra. Achieved once one establishes unshakable faith.
- 5. Tranquillity (passaddhi, S. praśrabdhi) - Achieved temporarily through Nembutsu, established in one's life through unshakable faith (accompanied by gratitude), and culminated in the Pure Land when one becomes a Buddha/bodhisattva.
- 6. Unification (samadhi, S. samādhi) - Nembutsu Samadhi achieved through recitation of Nembutsu.
- 7. Equanimity (upekkhā, S. upekṣā) - Achieved temporarily through Nembutsu, established in one's life through unshakable faith (accompanied by gratitude), and culminated in the Pure Land when one becomes a Buddha/bodhisattva. Also achieved when one realizes one's foolish nature as a being bound by afflictions (kileshas), that one is no better than anyone else, and that through receiving the compassion of the Buddha - all sentient beings are deserving of such compassion.

- Noble 8 Fold Path
- Described above.

Meditation
1. Single pointed Concentration (Samatha) - Vasubandhu & ShanTao describe single-pointed concentration in Pure Land as the single-minded desire for birth in the Pure Land. In practice, this concentration can be achieved through constant and continuous recitation of the Nembutsu.
2. Insight Meditation (Vipassanā) - Vasubandhu defines insight meditation in Pure Land as visualization of the adornments of the Pure Land and of Amitabha Buddha.

Kasina Meditation
There are 10 basic visual objects of meditation:
1. earth (paṭhavī kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra, the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the 3rd visualization in the Visualization sutra.
2. water (āpo kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra, the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the 2nd & 5th visualizations in the Visualization sutra.
3. fire (tejo kasiṇa) - part of the 4th visualization in the Visualization sutra. Shows up in the 2nd fascicle of the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, regarding the 5 evils and 5 virtues.
4. air, wind (vāyo kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra, the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the latter part of the 3rd visualization in the Visualization sutra.
5. blue, green (nīla kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra (the flowers), the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the 2nd, 3rd, and 9th visualizations in the Visualization sutra.
6. yellow (pīta kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra (the flowers), the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the 5th visualization in the Visualization sutra.
7. red (lohita kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra (the flowers), the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the 4th, 10th, and 11th visualizations in the Visualization sutra.
8. white (odāta kasiṇa) - part of the visualization in the Shorter Sukhavati Sutra (the flowers), the Larger Sukhavati Sutra, and the 4th and 9th visualizations in the Visualization sutra.
9. enclosed space, hole, aperture (ākāsa kasiṇa) - part of the 1st visualization in the Visualization sutra.
10. consciousness (viññāṇa kasiṇa) or bright light (āloka kasiṇa) - 8th and 9th visualizations in the Visualization sutra. Bright light is in all 3 sutras.
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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby DGA » Tue Dec 06, 2016 5:40 pm

This is truly excellent. You have created a very useful resource here.

Would you please sticky this thread to the top of the Pure Land forum?

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Admin_PC » Tue Dec 06, 2016 6:00 pm

Well if you insist. :tongue:
I just added the Kasina stuff at the end (though I might be able to do a better job of the mapping).
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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Coëmgenu » Wed Dec 07, 2016 4:58 pm

Admin_PC wrote:The Mahaparinibbana sutta has tons of goodies:

[...]

Part 5 verse 24-31 - Buddha talks about how the householders should venerate him (but the monks should focus on practice) and that if they do venerate him (at a stupa) and have faith, they will be reborn in heaven.
I can't actually find where is specifies that householders have one set of behaviours and monks another:
24. Then the Venerable Ananda said: "How should we act, Lord, respecting the body of the Tathagata?"

"Do not hinder yourselves, Ananda, to honor the body of the Tathagata. Rather you should strive, Ananda, and be zealous on your own behalf,[46] for your own good. Unflinchingly, ardently, and resolutely you should apply yourselves to your own good. For there are, Ananda, wise nobles, wise brahmans, and wise householders who are devoted to the Tathagata, and it is they who will render the honor to the body of the Tathagata."

25. Then the Venerable Ananda said: "But how, Lord, should they act respecting the body of the Tathagata?"

"After the same manner, Ananda, as towards the body of a universal monarch."[47]

"But how, Lord, do they act respecting the body of a universal monarch?"

26. "The body of a universal monarch, Ananda, is first wrapped round with new linen, and then with teased cotton wool, and so it is done up to five hundred layers of linen and five hundred of cotton wool. When that is done, the body of the universal monarch is placed in an iron[48] oil vessel, which is enclosed in another iron vessel, a funeral pyre is built of all kinds of perfumed woods, and so the body of the universal monarch is burned; and at a crossroads a stupa is raised for the universal monarch. So it is done, Ananda, with the body of a universal monarch. And even, Ananda, as with the body of a universal monarch, so should it be done with the body of the Tathagata; and at a crossroads also a stupa should be raised for the Tathagata. And whosoever shall bring to that place garlands or incense or sandalpaste, or pay reverence, and whose mind becomes calm there — it will be to his well being and happiness for a long time.

27. "There are four persons, Ananda, who are worthy of a stupa. Who are those four? A Tathagata, an Arahant, a Fully Enlightened One is worthy of a stupa; so also is a Paccekabuddha,[49] and a disciple of a Tathagata, and a universal monarch.

28-31. "And why, Ananda, is a Tathagata, an Arahant, a Fully Enlightened One worthy of a stupa? Because, Ananda, at the thought: 'This is the stupa of that Blessed One, Arahant, Fully Enlightened One!' the hearts of many people will be calmed and made happy; and so calmed and with their minds established in faith therein, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness. And so also at the thought: 'This is the stupa of that Paccekabuddha!' or 'This is the stupa of a disciple of that Tathagata, Arahant, Fully Enlightened One!' or 'This is the stupa of that righteous monarch who ruled according to Dhamma!' — the hearts of many people are calmed and made happy; and so calmed and with their minds established in faith therein, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness. And it is because of this, Ananda, that these four persons are worthy of a stupa."
"My pure land is not destroyed,
yet the multitude sees it as consumed in fire,
with anxiety, fear, and other sufferings
filling it everywhere."
(Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra XVI)

All these dharmāḥ are the status of dharma, the standing of dharma, the suchness of dharma; the dharma neither departs from things-as-they-are, nor differs from things-as-they-are; it is the truth, reality, without distortion.(SA 296, 因緣法)
揭諦揭諦,波羅揭諦,波羅僧揭諦,菩提薩婆訶(Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasya Mantra)

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Admin_PC » Wed Dec 07, 2016 5:02 pm

That whole first passage in 24 - Ananda is given different priorities than those who will venerate the Tathagata.
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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Coëmgenu » Thu Dec 08, 2016 5:57 pm

Admin_PC wrote:That whole first passage in 24 - Ananda is given different priorities than those who will venerate the Tathagata.
I see. I don't really know how I missed that on first reading. Must have been a brain fart or something, or maybe I was reading the wrong passage 24 the first time, it tripped me out that there were a few passages labelled 24.

It is an odd things to say, but then again, what isn't mysterious about the saying originating in the last days of the Buddha. Since just before, the Bhagavān says
"Yet it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tathagata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped, and honoured in the highest degree. But, Ananda, whatever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman, abides by the Dhamma, lives uprightly in the Dhamma, walks in the way of the Dhamma, it is by such a one that the Tathagata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped, and honored in the highest degree. Therefore, Ananda, thus should you train yourselves: 'We shall abide by the Dhamma, live uprightly in the Dhamma, walk in the way of the Dhamma.'"
which, IMO, implies that the Buddha believes that there will come shortly a time in which the Buddha is "worshipped and honoured in the highest degree", and that this worship and honouring will not be a bad thing, or a thing that is out-of-line with the Dharma. If such a thing were the case, one would think that the Buddha would lament that he will be worshipped, because that would be a degeneration of the Dharma. It doesn't seem like there is any indication that the Buddha does not approve of his eventual worship. Similarly, the Buddha also says that by moving in the Dharma, monks worship the Buddha all the same, just in a different matter. Not focussing on the body maybe? This is in line with another piece of Buddhavacana:
"Enough, Vakkali. Why do you want to see this filthy body? Whoever sees the Dhamma sees me; whoever sees me sees the Dhamma."
(SN 22.87)


One wonders if the body is "filthy" on account of it not being the Primordial Aspect, merely an upāyakāya, if such a thing exists? The Buddha is not his body, truly. Makes sense.
"My pure land is not destroyed,
yet the multitude sees it as consumed in fire,
with anxiety, fear, and other sufferings
filling it everywhere."
(Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra XVI)

All these dharmāḥ are the status of dharma, the standing of dharma, the suchness of dharma; the dharma neither departs from things-as-they-are, nor differs from things-as-they-are; it is the truth, reality, without distortion.(SA 296, 因緣法)
揭諦揭諦,波羅揭諦,波羅僧揭諦,菩提薩婆訶(Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasya Mantra)

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Matte79 » Wed Dec 21, 2016 9:30 pm

Thank you very much, this was perfect for someone new to pure land buddhism.

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Bag of Bags » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:10 am

I really love this thread and found it useful for increasing faith in my Pure Land practice. I keep coming back to it, but since I actually just registered today I want make a point of expressing my gratitude :thanks:

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby thecowisflying » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:58 pm

Admin_PC wrote:The Mahaparinibbana sutta has tons of goodies:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .vaji.html
Part 1 verse 31 - Buddha talks about making offerings to devas and how it will bring good fortune. :jawdrop:
Part 4 verse 56 - Cunda is promised heavenly birth (and other things) for offering the last meal to the Tathagata, aludes to the fact that other meals offered are also meritorious.
Part 5 verse 22 - Dying on a pilgrimage (with a heart established in faith) to a Buddhist holy site leads to birth in heaven.
Part 5 verse 24-31 - Buddha talks about how the householders should venerate him (but the monks should focus on practice) and that if they do venerate him (at a stupa) and have faith, they will be reborn in heaven.


How could this be? Buddhism is a Athiest/Agnostic/Liberal teaching that doesn't talk about gods! It must have been snuck in by the Hindus. /s

This is Great Post!

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby shaunc » Thu Mar 23, 2017 8:25 pm

Thanks. This is fantastic.

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby shaunc » Mon Mar 27, 2017 12:19 am

I can't understand how a person that knows about the 5 precepts but breaks them anyway accrues less bad karma than someone who breaks them but has no knowledge of the 5 precepts of Buddhism.
Surely they would accrue the same amount of karma regardless, all other things being equal of course.

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Boomerang » Mon Mar 27, 2017 1:00 am

shaunc wrote:I can't understand how a person that knows about the 5 precepts but breaks them anyway accrues less bad karma than someone who breaks them but has no knowledge of the 5 precepts of Buddhism.
Surely they would accrue the same amount of karma regardless, all other things being equal of course.


One who knows the precepts can feel shame while doing harmful deeds, and after doing the deeds they can attempt to purify themselves.
"All the suffering of the lower realms, whatever difficulty and unhappiness we may experience as human beings, as well as every other possible suffering of the three realms of existence, have their origin in cherishing ourselves more than others."

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Coldian » Fri Mar 31, 2017 6:10 am

shaunc wrote:I can't understand how a person that knows about the 5 precepts but breaks them anyway accrues less bad karma than someone who breaks them but has no knowledge of the 5 precepts of Buddhism.
Surely they would accrue the same amount of karma regardless, all other things being equal of course.


Quite simply put, a precept-aware person is nagged by their conscience, so the transgression is more of a crime of passion (I don't know what came over me / I don't stop myself / etc) as opposed to a person with no knowledge of the precepts, so they don't commit the deed as 'fully' as an ignorant person (your heart's not in it, so to say)

Then also as said above, you'd naturally feel ashamed and try to make amends after. So less negative points, and motivated to get more positive points, it's better both sides.

The flipside of this would be doing good deeds with an impure heart (ulterior/ selfish motives), which weakens the merits gained.

Also explained here:
http://thedailyenlightenment.com/2010/0 ... -precepts/
http://thedailyenlightenment.com/2016/0 ... -formally/

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby shaunc » Fri Mar 31, 2017 9:26 am

I can see this point but I was always taught that karma is impartial and unbiased. Also you could argue that someone who's unaware of the precepts doesn't understand that they are doing an unskilled action yet someone who is aware does know better. Also feeling guilty could be a part of their karma.

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Boomerang » Fri Mar 31, 2017 9:53 am

shaunc wrote:I can see this point but I was always taught that karma is impartial and unbiased. Also you could argue that someone who's unaware of the precepts doesn't understand that they are doing an unskilled action yet someone who is aware does know better. Also feeling guilty could be a part of their karma.


Shamelessly breaking vows is worse than never taking vows, but sutras assume that Buddhists want to follow their vows as best they can. So generally, a vow holder will have a more wholesome mindstate than a non-Buddhist.
"All the suffering of the lower realms, whatever difficulty and unhappiness we may experience as human beings, as well as every other possible suffering of the three realms of existence, have their origin in cherishing ourselves more than others."

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Admin_PC » Fri Mar 31, 2017 1:58 pm

shaunc wrote:I can see this point but I was always taught that karma is impartial and unbiased. Also you could argue that someone who's unaware of the precepts doesn't understand that they are doing an unskilled action yet someone who is aware does know better. Also feeling guilty could be a part of their karma.
Karma is not immutable though. To summarize the Buddha's position in the Agamas/Nikayas: "if karma was immutable, there would be no reason for the holy path". Basically repentance & good deeds can go a long way in mitigating the damage done by unskillful actions; where as complete ignorance about unskillful actions usually leads to exacerbating the situation.
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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby shaunc » Fri Mar 31, 2017 10:35 pm

Thank you. I'd never thought of doing good deeds as a way of lessening the effects of bad karma. I'd always thought of it as a way of accumulating good karma. I suppose that's a bit like the argument of whether a glass is half full or half empty.
I'm not sure whether I can agree with repentance also helping to lessen the effects of bad karma. Repentance without action is useless. Although I can see that Repentance with good actions would be worth more than good actions alone.
Thanks for helping with my education.
Namu Amida Butsu.

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Boomerang » Fri Mar 31, 2017 11:12 pm

shaunc wrote:Thank you. I'd never thought of doing good deeds as a way of lessening the effects of bad karma. I'd always thought of it as a way of accumulating good karma. I suppose that's a bit like the argument of whether a glass is half full or half empty.


Yup. This idea is present in the Pali Canon as well as the Mahayana.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka ... .than.html

I'm not sure whether I can agree with repentance also helping to lessen the effects of bad karma. Repentance without action is useless. Although I can see that Repentance with good actions would be worth more than good actions alone.
Thanks for helping with my education.
Namu Amida Butsu.


Repentance is a type of action that is taught in the Mahayana. There are practices that instruct beings to purify their karma by generating feelings of repentance while doing prostrations or meditations.
"All the suffering of the lower realms, whatever difficulty and unhappiness we may experience as human beings, as well as every other possible suffering of the three realms of existence, have their origin in cherishing ourselves more than others."

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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby Admin_PC » Fri Mar 31, 2017 11:22 pm

From the Pali canon:

"These two are fools. Which two? The one who doesn't see his/her transgression as a transgression, and the one who doesn't rightfully pardon another who has confessed his/her transgression. These two are fools.

"These two are wise. Which two? The one who sees his/her transgression as a transgression, and the one who rightfully pardons another who has confessed his/her transgression. These two are wise."
AN 2.21

"It's a cause of growth in the Dhamma and Vinaya of the noble ones when, seeing a transgression as such, one makes amends in accordance with the Dhamma and exercises restraint in the future."
DN 2

""Having done a bodily action, you should reflect on it: 'This bodily action I have done — did it lead to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both? Was it an unskillful bodily action, with painful consequences, painful results?' If, on reflection, you know that it led to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both; it was an unskillful bodily action with painful consequences, painful results, then you should confess it, reveal it, lay it open to the Teacher or to a knowledgeable companion in the holy life. Having confessed it... you should exercise restraint in the future."
MN 61

From the Mahayana canon:

"The Buddha told Śāriputra, “If there are good men and good women who do not wish to be reborn as hell-dwellers, animals, or hungry ghosts, they should repent of their sins and should not conceal them. After they have accepted the precepts, they should not do evil again. If they do not wish to be reborn in fringe countries where there is no Buddha, no Dharma, no Saṅgha, no virtuous principles, and no distinction between good and evil, they should repent of their sins and should not conceal them. If they do not wish to be reborn blind, deaf, mute, or stupid, or reborn into families of butchers, fishers, hunters, or wardens, or reborn into poor families, they should repent of their sins and should not conceal them. If women wish to be reborn in male form, they should repent of their sins.

“Those who wish to enter the holy stream, becoming Srotāpannas and never becoming hell-dwellers, hungry ghosts [or animals], should repent of their sins. Those who wish to become Sakṛdāgāmins and be reborn in a heaven, to become Anāgāmins and be reborn in one of the twenty-four heavens, to become Arhats and enter parinirvāṇa, to abide in the world as Arhats or Pratyekabuddhas, or to know past and future events, should all repent of their sins and should not conceal them.”
(Taisho 24n1492) Buddha Pronounces the Repentance Sūtra in Response to Śāriputra

“Śāriputra, you now should teach all sentient beings to purify their body karmas, voice karmas, and mind karmas. They should prostrate themselves on the ground to take refuge in the preceptor, and sincerely repent of their three evil karmas. They should say their repentance three times. After repentance, their body karmas, voice karmas, and mind karmas are purified. Then, three times they should say, ‘I, Disciple A, take refuge in the Buddha, take refuge in the Dharma, take refuge in the Saṅgha.’ Also three times they should next say, ‘Completion of taking refuge in the Buddha, completion of taking in the Dharma, completion of taking refuge in the Saṅgha.’

“Then ask them, ‘Good men and good women, can you uphold your refuge?’ If they say that they can, then ask them, ‘Have your body and mind sinned? These sins include shedding the blood of a Buddha, killing an Arhat, disrupting the harmony of a Saṅgha, and maligning the true Dharma of the Buddha.’ If their answer is negative, you should further ask, ‘Have you thought about committing any of the five rebellious sins or maligning the true Dharma? Have you stolen from the Saṅgha things pertaining to the Buddha or the Dharma, offerings to the holy ones, personal things, or communal things? Have you ever defiled your mother or sisters, or bhikṣuṇīs?’

“If their answer is negative, you should teach them that they now are pure in body and mind, and that they should ask, ‘Virtuous One, please remember that I wish to receive the ten good karmas as precepts because I have repented of the ten evil karmas. I pray only that the Virtuous One, out of lovingkindness and compassion for me, will permit me to receive them.’
(Taisho 24n1486) Sūtra of Accepting the Ten Good Karmas as Precepts

At that time Samantabhadra Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva, having praised Tathāgatas’ merit, said to the Bodhisattvas and the youth Sudhana: “Good men, if Buddhas [in worlds] in the ten directions expound Tathāgatas’ merit continuously for as many kalpas as there are dust particles in innumerable Buddha Lands, they still can never finish their narrations. If one wants to go through this Merit Door, one should train in the ten great vowed actions. What are these ten?

First, make obeisance to Buddhas.
Second, praise Tathāgatas.
Third, make expansive offerings.
Fourth, repent of karma, the cause of hindrances.
Fifth, express sympathetic joy over others’ merits.
Sixth, request Buddhas to turn the Dharma wheel.
Seventh, beseech Buddhas to abide in the world.
Eighth, always follow Buddhas to learn.
Ninth, forever support sentient beings.
Tenth, universally transfer all merits to others.”
(Taisho 10n0293) Avatamsaka Sutra Fascicle 40 (Samantabhadra's Vows)

“Fourth, good man, how does one repent of karma, the cause of hindrances? Bodhisattvas should think: ‘Because of greed, anger, and delusion, the evil karma I have done through my body, voice, and mind, in past kalpas without a beginning, is immeasurable and boundless. If this evil karma had substance and appearance, even the entire domain of space could not contain it. I now, with the three pure karmas, earnestly repent before the entire multitude of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in lands as numerous as dust particles in the dharma realm. I will never do [such evil karma] again, and I will abide by the pure precepts and cultivate all virtues.’

“My repentance would end only if the domain of space ended, the realm of sentient beings ended, the karmas of sentient beings ended, and the afflictions of sentient beings ended. As these four, from the domain of space to the afflictions of sentient beings, have no end, so my repentance will have no end. It continues thought after thought without interruption as the karma of my body, voice, and mind knows no tiredness.
(Taisho 10n0293) Avatamsaka Sutra Fascicle 40 (Samantabhadra's Vows)

Standard Mahayana liturgical aspiration:

6. Repenting of All Sins (懺悔偈)

The evil karmas I have done with my body, voice, and mind are caused by greed, anger, and delusion, which are without a beginning. Before Buddhas I now supplicate for my repentance.
往昔所造諸惡業 皆由無始貪瞋癡 從身語意之所生 今對佛前求懺悔
The evil karmas I have done with my body, voice, and mind are caused by greed, anger, and delusion, which are without a beginning. I repent of all sins, the cause of hindrances.
往昔所造諸惡業 皆由無始貪瞋癡 從身語意之所生 一切罪障皆懺悔
The evil karmas I have done with my body, voice, and mind are caused by greed, anger, and delusion, which are without a beginning. I repent of all the roots of sin.
往昔所造諸惡業 皆由無始貪瞋癡 從身語意之所生 一切罪根皆懺悔

Shan-Tao's Ojoraisan - Liturgy for Birth in the Pure Land:
There are three kinds of repentance: principal, short, and extensive, which are explained in detail below.15) Any of the three can be done as one pleases. Otherwise, one will not be continuously mindful of repaying the Buddha's benevolence, one will give rise to haughty thoughts which allow one's acts to be tainted with desires for reputation and profit, one will be covered with self-attachment which alienates one from fellow-practitioners and good teachers, and one will be drawn to miscellaneous influences, resulting in hindering oneself and others from performing the right practice for birth in the Pure Land.
月影の いたらぬ里は なけれども 眺むる人の 心にぞすむ
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Re: A helpful mapping

Postby shaunc » Sat Apr 01, 2017 1:23 am

Thanks. Things are becoming a lot clearer now.
Namu Amida Butsu.


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