{ya.ping.} medials: ref. जय्य jayya

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U Kyaw Tun
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Joined: Fri Dec 23, 2011 10:19 pm

{ya.ping.} medials: ref. जय्य jayya

Post by U Kyaw Tun » Thu Feb 23, 2012 10:34 pm

{ya.ping.} medials
with reference to Skt-Dev जय्य jayya
-- U Kyaw Tun (UKT) 120223
Tun Institute of Learning,
Research station: 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon, Myanmar
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Please note that though I am giving Devanagari graphemes, they are not be pronounced according to Hindi or Sanskrit phonology. They are given to show the grapheme-to-grapheme correspondence to Myanmar and they are to be pronounced according to the Burmese phonology. Thanks to King Asoka, it is theoretically possible to write Burmese in Devanagari, and Hindi in Myanmar akshara. The only restriction is : don't let the English transliterations and transcriptions come in! IPA is of some assistance but it must be used to a minimum. As the common link I have invented Romabama which may be viewed as Burmese-Latin.

The Bur-Myan name {zé-yya.} जे य्य is quite common in Myanmar. It was the name of the founder of the last dynasty of Burmese kings who is commonly known as Alaungpaya. His name was U Aung Zeya {U:aung-zé-yya.}. The first part of the name {aung} 'success' is derived from Pal-Myan {OÄN } or Skt-Dev ॐ Om . The medial {yya.} य्य is readily pronounceable in Bur-Myan.

The modern Bur-Myan has four medial formers, {ya.} य , {ra.} र, {wa.} व, {ha.} ह . Bur-Myan of the Pagan period had {la.} ल as a medial former and it is still retained in the Tavoyan dialect. The medial {yya.} य्य is derived from the semi-consonant {ya.} य . In this note I will confine myself only the medial former {ya.} य keeping in mind the POA (Place of Articulation) of the consonants involved. Remember that POA of {ya.} य is palatal and is to be considered to be a consonant or a semi-consonant at the least. It should never be considered to be a vowel or even a semi-vowel.

My interest at this point is the medials formed from:
¤ {ka.} क --> {kya.} क्य :
The POA of {ka.} क is velar which is next to palatal. The tongue, the tip as well as the body has no problem in articulating from the velar position to the palatal
¤ {ta.} त --> {tya.} त्य :
The POA of {ta.} त is dental which is far from palatal. The tongue has difficulty in going from velar to dental and the syllable is not properly pronounced. It is actually pronounced as a disyllable with a schwa inserted. In fact Bur-Myan pronounce {tya.} त्य as a disyllable with a schwa inserted: /tə.ja/ . Note: IPA /ja./ and IAST «ja» are different.
¤ {pa.} प --> {pya.} प्य :
The POA of {pa.} प is bilabial and the tongue is not involved. And therefore there is no problem in pronunciation.

I have been observing that when the POAs are near to each other or the same, the medial is easily pronounced as in the case of {kya.} क्य . This medial is never pronounced properly by English-speakers because English is not a phonetic language. It is easily pronounced by speakers of Indic languages when I point out the correspondence in their respective graphemes to Myanmar.

When I look at the two languages, Pali written in Myanmar script and Sanskrit written in Devanagari script, not only are the pronunciations very similar, but the meanings are the same.
• जय्य jayya [ gáy-ya ]
= ज य ् य {za.yya.}
Skt: -- fp. to be conquered or won. - Macdonell 099c3
Pal: {zé-yya.}
- - UHS-Pali-Myanmar-Dictionary 0419
UKT from UHS: -- ¹ mfn. to be conquered or won. ² mfn. exceptionally large.

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