http://enlight.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/ ... ion_detail“Proto–Tantric” Elements in The Gandavyuha sutra by Douglas Osto
Although a Ma¯ha¯yana su¯tra, the Gandavyuha ¯ clearly contains a number of elements that seem to presage the “tantric” phase in Indian Buddhism. In particular, the su¯tra contains four components worthy of note: elaborate scenes detailing what can best be understood as mandala s, a soteriology based on absolute faith in the spiritual guides, a strong insinuation of organisational esotericism, and the hint of sexual yoga.
After briefly summarising some recent scholarship on the Gandavyuha ¯ , the author
addresses each of the four “proto-tantric” components in detail. Following this, the
author concludes with the suggestion that despite the inherent difficulties in developing
a relative chronology of Indian Buddhist literature, close readings such as
provided in this article may be useful in generating data sets, which can then be used
to relate Indian Buddhist texts to each other.
Just more evidence that Buddhist Tantra is not just borrowed from Hinduism or totally made up, but that there is a continuity with earlier Buddhist texts.